A bend (Figure 119) is characterized by head losses of the form:
where is a head loss coefficient depending on the bend angle and the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe diameter , is the mass flow, g is the gravity acceleration and is the liquid density. is the cross section of the pipe. Values for can be found in file ``liquidpipe.f''.
The following constants have to be specified on the line beneath the *FLUID SECTION, TYPE=PIPE BEND card:
denotes the roughness of the pipe: applies to an extremely smooth pipe surface, to a very rough surface. The gravity acceleration must be specified by a gravity type *DLOAD card defined for the elements at stake. The material characteristic can be defined by a *DENSITY card.
Example files: centheat1, pipe.